Parable of the Sower

The Son of Man sows the seed of the gospel in the world where it grows into the kingdom of God until the end of the age – Mark 4:1-20. 

The Parable of the Sower provides the key to understanding the other parables of Jesus. Its point is that the kingdom of God began to invade the present age with the proclamation of the kingdom of God by the “Son of Man.” Jesus inaugurated the process, and ever since, the kingdom has been advancing throughout the earth though largely unnoticed.

What is a parable? The Greek word commonly rendered “parable” means “something that is thrown alongside, to cast beside” (Strong’s - #G3850). It is a saying that is laid alongside something else for comparison - an analogy.

His parables are stories drawn from everyday life and often feature jarring images to grab his audience’s attention. They illustrate one or two points of comparison. His parables most often concern the “kingdom of God.”

  • (Mark 4:1-9) - “And again, he began to teach by the sea. And there come to him a very great multitude, so that he, entering a boat, was sitting upon the sea, and all the multitude were near the sea on the land. And he began to teach them in parables many things and was saying to them, Hearken! Lo, the sower went forth to sow. And it came to pass, as he sowed, some, indeed, fell by the pathway, and the birds came and devoured it. And some fell on the rocky places where it had not much earth, and straightway, it sprang forth by reason of its not having depth of earth. And when the sun arose, it was scorched, and by reason of its not having root, it was dried up. And some fell among the thorns, and the thorns came up and choked it, and fruit it yielded not. And other fell into the good ground and was yielding fruit, coming up and growing, and was bearing thirtyfold and sixtyfold and a hundredfold. And he was saying: He that has ears to hear, let him hear!

In the preceding passage, the stress is on how the seed interacts with different types of soil. The “Sower,” the “seed,” and the method of sowing are the same for each soil type.

What happens to the “seed” once it contacts the “soil” is the real point, and the “seed” falls on four soil types - hardened, rocky, thorny, and fertile soil.

A harvest of thirty, sixty or a hundredfold is extraordinary. This is an exaggerated figure to catch our attention. With his kingdom, regardless of how insignificant its beginnings, the results exceed all expectations.


The disciples then asked why “outsiders” receive parables without explanation, yet insiders receive parables with explanations?

Parables separate insiders from outsiders. They both reveal AND conceal. They are a blessing to some but bring judgment to others.

  • (Mark 4:10-12) - “And when he was alone, they who were about him with the twelve questioned him as to the parables. And he was saying to them: To you, the mystery has been given of the kingdom of God, whereas, to them who are outside, in parables are all things coming to pass that they may surely look and yet not see, and surely hear and yet not understand, lest once they should return and be forgiven.

Christ’s saying alludes to a passage in the book of Isaiah:

  • Go! And say to this people: Hear on but do not discern, see on but do not perceive; stupefy the heart of this people, and their ears make heavy, and their eyes overspread, lest they see with their eyes, and with their ears should hear, and their heart should discern and come back, and they be healed.

The contrast is between those who hear the parable and receive its explanation and those who do not. This is the pattern in his teaching ministry. Some men react in faith to the good news, but others are blinded by unbelief and reject it. The failure of some to understand is a sign of divine judgment on their hardness of heart.

Jesus declares to his disciples that they have been “given the mystery of the kingdom of God.” The Greek noun rendered “mystery” does not refer to something esoteric or mysterious, but to something hidden that now is disclosed (mystérionStrong’s - #G3466).

The unveiling of the mystery is “given.” It cannot be acquired through human effort or intellect. It must be received from God. The “mystery” is revealed to those who follow him and hearken to his words.

The word “parable” occurs twelve times in the gospel of Mark, and each time in a context of opposition to Jesus. By means of parables, he reveals the “mystery of the kingdom” to hearers, but he also exposes his opponents and their hardness of heart.

In Isaiah, the prophet receives a vision of Yahweh sitting on his throne when the prophet hears his call to bring the words of God to Israel. He is warned that the people will not heed his words, and inevitably, judgment will follow. Yet a remnant will heed the words of Yahweh.


The parable concerns the process of the kingdom expanding in the world, and how men will respond to it. It is being implemented through the proclamation of the gospel proclamation - first by Jesus, then by his disciples.

  • (Mark 4:13-20) - “And he said to them, Know you not this parable? How then will you get to know all the parables? The sower sows the word, and these are they beside the pathway where the word is sown, and as soon as they hear, straightway, Satan comes and snatches away the word which has been sown into them. And these are likewise they upon the rocky places sown, who, as soon as they hear the word, straightway with joy receive it, and have no root in themselves, but only for a season are afterward when there arises tribulation or persecution by reason of the word, straightway, they find causes of stumbling. And others are they who among thorns are sown. These are they who hear the word, and the anxieties of the age, and the deceit of wealth, and the lusts about the remaining things, entering in, choke up the word and unfruitful it becomes. And those yonder are they who on the good ground are sown, who, indeed, hear the word and accept it, and bear fruit, thirtyfold and sixtyfold and a hundredfold.

The proclamation of the kingdom of God by a ragtag group of poorly educated Galileans appears weak to the human mind. But that small beginning initiates something far larger. But the results cannot be seen at the time the “seed” is sown.

In the end, the proclamation of the gospel will usher in the long-promised reign and realm of God, including everlasting life for everyone who responds to it in repentance and faith.

The parable is about the four different ways the word of the kingdom is received. The seed sown on the hardened soil meets with no positive response. Some seed is received initially with enthusiasm but then forsaken when circumstances become challenging. Some receive the seed, but then it is smothered by the competing forces of this age. The seed that falls on good soil represents the men and women who hear the gospel, respond to it with faith, and then bear fruit.

Jesus faced outright rejection by some, initial acceptance by others who were not prepared to pay the required costs, and acceptance by still others who later recanted because of the deceitfulness of riches. It is the same for every disciple who heeds the call and begins to sow the good seed of the kingdom of God.


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