The Greater Lawgiver

The life, words, and deeds of Jesus echo key events from the History of Israel. He brings the things God began in the past to their intended fulfillment. He is the Greater Lawgiver foreshadowed in the story of the Exodus from Egypt. By presenting parallels between Moses and Jesus, the Gospel of Matthew prepares us for the teachings of Christ, especially as represented in his ‘Sermon on the Mount’.

Moses delivered the Law to Israel at Mount Sinai. Likewise, on the “Mount,” Jesus pronounced his definitive interpretations of the “Law and the Prophets.”

The Mount - Photo by Nathan Anderson on Unsplash
[Photo by Nathan Anderson on Unsplash]

After the “
wise men” told King Herod of their journey to find the one “born King of the Jews,” he asked them to inform him when they identified the child so that he could pay homage also. However, the “wise men” were warned in a dream not to return to Herod, for he intended to kill the child.

Likewise, when Moses was born, the “King of Egypt” ordered the “Hebrew midwives” to kill all male infants when they were born, but they “feared God and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them” - (Exodus 1:17, Matthew 2:1-12).

The angel warned Joseph to take the infant to Egypt, “for Herod will seek to destroy the child,” which is what the king did when he ordered the slaughter of all males under the age of two in Bethlehem. Joseph remained in Egypt until Herod died in fulfillment of the prophecy of Hosea, a passage applied originally to Israel’s deliverance from Egypt - “Out of Egypt, I called my son” - (Hosea 11:1, Matthew 2:13-16).

Moses fled Egypt because Pharaoh sought to slay him, and he remained in Midian until Pharaoh died. Only then did God “hear the groanings of the children of Israel and remember his covenant with Abraham.” God then sent Moses back to Egypt to deliver Israel - (Exodus 2:15-25, 3:14).

After his baptism, the “Spirit led Jesus into the wilderness to be tested by the Devil.” The temptation as recorded in Matthew echoes the tests that Israel faced in the wilderness, only she failed each test whereas he overcame them all - (Matthew 4:1-11).

THE WILDERNESS


The Israelites complained in the wilderness. They missed the “fleshpots of Egypt.” God responded by sending them “manna” to eat. Moses reminded the nation years later that God “fed you with manna…that he might make you know that man does not live by bread only, but by EVERYTHING THAT PROCEEDS OUT OF THE MOUTH OF YAHWEH,” the very passage Jesus quoted to Satan in the wilderness when the Devil tempted him to turn stones into bread to relieve his hunger - (Exodus 16:3, Deuteronomy 8:3).

At Massah, the Israelites grumbled about the lack of water. In so doing, they “tempted Yahweh.” Before entering Canaan, Moses reminded them of the incident when he warned Israel, “Do not tempt Yahweh your God as you tempted him in Massah.” Jesus cited the same passage when Satan challenged him to throw himself down from the “pinnacle of the Temple” - (Exodus 17:1-7, Deuteronomy 6:16).

When the Devil offered Jesus political power, he responded by again citing the words of Moses to Israel - “Beware lest you forget Yahweh who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt. You shall fear Yahweh your God, and you shall serve him” - (Deuteronomy 6:12-13).

Jesus returned to Galilee from the wilderness and began proclaiming the Good News of the Kingdom of God. At that time, “great multitudes from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, and Judea” started to follow him - (Matthew 4:18-25).

The geographic names indicate the crowds included Gentiles and Jews. Galilee is called “Galilee of the nations” in the account Matthew’s description of the “multitudes” parallels the “mixed multitude” that “came up with the children of Israel” when God brought them out of Egypt “with signs and wonders.”

So, also, many members of the “multitude” in Galilee followed Jesus because of his miraculous healings and exorcisms rather than his teachings and call for repentance and discipleship. “You seek me because you ate of the loaves, and were filled” – (Exodus 12:38, Deuteronomy 26:8, John 6:26).

The background from Exodus and Deuteronomy prepares us for the first major block of Christ’s teachings in Chapters 5 through 7 of Matthew. After “seeing the multitudes,” he led his disciples “up onto the Mountain” where he sat down and began to teach them.

The Greek text uses the definite article or “the” with “mountain.” It was “THE mountain.” The text does not provide any information about its identity. This is a verbal allusion to the story of Moses when he “ascended onto the mount” at Sinai.

Matthew wants us to hear these echoes of the life of Moses. While Israel was encamped on the plain, Moses “went up to Yahweh” and received the “ten words” inscribed on the stone tablets. In the Greek Septuagint version of Exodus, Moses “ascended onto the mount” (anebé eis to oros). The same clause is found in the Greek text of Matthew when it describes Jesus as he “ascended to the Mount” (anebé eis to oros).

When Moses ascended the mountain and received the commandments of God, only Aaron accompanied him. Not even the sanctified priests were allowed on the mountain – “Let not the priests and the people break through to ascend up unto Yahweh, lest he break forth upon them.” - (Exodus 12:12-25).

So likewise, having ascended the “Mount” as Moses did, Jesus taught the words of God to his closest disciples. However, he went beyond anything Moses did by giving the definitive interpretations of the Law’s statutes and the will of his Father in what Christians today call the ‘Sermon on the Mount’.



RELATED POSTS:
  • "I Never Knew You!" - (At the end of his Sermon on the Mount, Jesus claimed absolute authority for his words. Disciples who ignore them risk his rejection – Matthew 7:21-28)
  • Suffering for Him - (To follow Jesus requires the willingness to suffer for his sake, and enduring persecution is the highest honor imaginable in his Kingdom)
  • Superabounding Righteousness - (Mercy and love are defining characteristics of the disciples of Jesus, reflecting the true nature of his Father – Matthew 5:43-48)


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